PERAN MIKROBIOM PADA INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL

  • Wresti Indriatmi Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Kulit dan Kelamin, FK Universitas Indonesia/RSUPN dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jakarta

Abstrak

Komposisi mikrobiota saluran reproduksi berkaitan dengan kesehatan reproduksi dan ketahanannya terhadap infeksi menular seksual, terutama pada perempuan. Saluran reproduksi perempuan dan laki-laki dapat terpajan dengan komunitas mikroba asing selama aktivitas seksual. Proteksi oleh mikrobiota vagina sehat terhadap infeksi virus dapat diperankan oleh efek virusidal langsung atau oleh faktor pertahanan alamiah yang terdapat di dalam lingkungan vagina. Flora vagina abnormal yang kekurangan lactobacilli dihubungkan dengan kemudahan terinfeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, serta Trichomonas vaginalis. Pada laki-laki, mikrobiota dapat ditemukan pada genitalia bagian bawah, terutama penis, yang dapat dipengaruhi oleh sirkumsisi. Sirkumsisi dapat mengurangi risiko beberapa infeksi menular seksual (IMS), yaitu herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV), dan human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dengan cara mengubah mikrobiota penis dan lingkungan imunitas lokal. Mikrobiota pada rektum juga berperan bila hubungan seksual dilakukan secara anogenital reseptif. Dengan demikian, penularan patogen infeksi menular seksual akan dipengaruhi oleh komposisi mikrobiota genital atau pun rektum.

Kata kunci: mikrobiom, mikrobiota, infeksi menular seksual

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2019-09-09
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